1940: Finnish troops capture 1,000 Russian soldiers near Suomussalmi.
1940: Rationing of butter, sugar and bacon begins in Britain.
1941: 96,000 people now sleeping in the Underground and Tube stations, 40,000 less than in October.
1941: US budget includes $17,500,000,000 defence appropriation.
1942: The Red Army begins an offensive near Lake Ilmen.
1941: RAF Wellingtons, flying from Malta attack the Italian fleet in Naples, badly damaging the battleship Giulio Cesare. This attack underlines the importance of Malta as an offensive base. Two days later, German and Italian aircraft begin a concerted air campaign against the island.
1943: General Rokossovsky, C-in-C of Don Front, issues a surrender ultimatum to the 6th Army, guaranteeing "their lives and safety and after the end of the war their return to Germany". He also promises that "...medical aid will be given to all wounded, sick and frost-bitten...". Paulus rejects this demand for surrender.
1943: The British hand Madagascar over to the Free French.
1944: The trial of Count Ciano and 18 other Fascists responsible for Mussolini’s downfall opens at Castel Vecchio, in Verona.
1944: Kirovograd falls to Russians.
"Beat him down till he aint gettin back up!"